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昨天下午我和宝贝在一间咖啡屋里小憩,她让我和一起在墙上留言,我写下了:睿睿宝贝你是妈妈心中最棒的! 宝贝看了以后自已写下了:妈妈,虽然在你眼里丁致成比我好,但是我是最用心的!!我将来会把所有比我强的同学咔嚓掉!! 我愧疚的眼泪差点没掉下来! 我知道我始终没有把握好这个尺寸,在宝贝的眼里,我这个妈妈心中还有别的孩子! 丁同学是她班上学习成绩比较突出的学生,刚刚过去的这个学期,我一直要求宝贝以他为榜样,虽然宝贝很不服气,但是到最后还是不得不接受了自已的平时成绩没有他好的事实。 虽然如此,宝贝很严肃的要求我不可以再去表扬别人家的孩子,她说她的自尊心受不了,她只需要妈妈的鼓励! 现在看来,我并没有做到,在某种程度上,宝贝的自尊心受到了打击,而这个打击来自于我。 惭愧啊! 于是我昨天当场就许诺:妈妈今后不会再提丁致成半个字!(我在心里告诉自已,别的同学也不要再提及) 我明白,一个8岁的孩子,如何能够理解抛开自已去向别人学习?如何能够做到理智?大人尚且做不到,何况是孩子?! 在教育上一把钥匙只能开一把锁,针对我的孩子的教育必须是符合她的性格特点的方式才行。 睿睿既然是一个接受不了我去表扬别人的孩子,那么我就要小心提及别人了。在她的心里,她要当NO.1的愿望是相当强烈的,她对我的要求是她自已要强的一种表现,也是一种求上进自我挣扎的方式,我做为家长应该顺势扶她一把,而不是拿别人所谓的优点来进行所谓的鼓励,对于孩子来讲无疑是把她往下拽!想到这里,自已真是觉得汗颜! 到了晚上,我们一同看书、做手工的时候,宝贝还郑重其事的告诉我,要多鼓励她才好!我连忙点头! 之后宝贝还稍带鼓励了一下我,说我和她的好朋友培如的妈妈相比,我比强太多了,说我自强不息!说培如其实一年到头也很辛苦也很努力,但是成绩就很一般,主要原因是在她的妈妈身上了,她的妈妈太不信任她了!我连忙探问,那宝贝认为她的妈妈信不信任她,她很肯定的点头并且还说我是自强不息的妈妈,和班里那些成绩优秀的妈妈的特点一样,呵呵!孩子眼里的自强不息我不知道是什么意思,反正被夸的感受也不错。但换位思考,被比较的滋味真是忐忑啊!我无论是以什么样的方式提及那位丁同学,在孩子的眼里都是被比较的意义的,所以孩子的反应如此强烈真是很正常的!幸运的是我的孩子的表达能力还不错,能够比较准确的将她的内心感受以及需要直接传递给了我。 所以,我很认真的下定决心:对于宝贝,不再提及那些同学,就等于不再拿宝贝与其他同学比较。她心里肯定是有数的!

时文选读(12)——A Brief History of the English Language江节明

A Brief History of the English Language The English language belongs to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The closest undoubted living relatives of English are Scots and Frisian. Frisian is a language spoken by approximately half a million people in the Dutch province of Friesland, in nearby areas of Germany, and on a few islands in the North Sea.The history of the English language has traditionally been divided into three main periods: Old English (450-1100 AD), Middle English (1100-circa 1500 AD) and Modern English (since 1500). Over the centuries, the English language has been influenced by a number of other languages.Old English (450 - 1100 AD): During the 5th Century AD three Germanic tribes (Saxons, Angles, and Jutes) came to the British Isles from various parts of northwest Germany as well as Denmark. These tribes were warlike and pushed out most of the original, Celtic-speaking inhabitants from England into Scotland, Wales, and Cornwall. One group migrated to the Brittany Coast of France where their descendants still speak the Celtic Language of Breton today.Through the years, the Saxons, Angles and Jutes mixed their different Germanic dialects. This group of dialects forms what linguists refer to as Old English or Anglo-Saxon. The word "English" was in Old English "Englisc", and that comes from the name of the Angles. The Angles were named from Engle, their land of origin.Before the Saxons the language spoken in what is now England was a mixture of Latin and various Celtic languages which were spoken before the Romans came to Britain (54-5BC). The Romans brought Latin to Britain, which was part of the Roman Empire for over 400 years. Many of the words passed on from this era are those coined by Roman merchants and soldiers. These include win (wine), candel (candle), belt (belt), weall (wall). ("Language Timeline", The British Library Board)The influence of Celtic upon Old English was slight. In fact, very few Celtic words have lived on in the English language. But many of place and river names have Celtic origins: Kent, York, Dover, Cumberland, Thames, Avon, Trent, Severn.The arrival of St. Augustine in 597 and the introduction of Christianity into Saxon England brought more Latin words into the English language. They were mostly concerned with the naming of Church dignitaries, ceremonies, etc. Some, such as church, bishop, baptism, monk, eucharist and presbyter came indirectly through Latin from the Greek.Around 878 AD Danes and Norsemen, also called Vikings, invaded the country and English got many Norse words into the language, particularly in the north of England. The Vikings, being Scandinavian, spoke a language (Old Norse) which, in origin at least, was just as Germanic as Old English.Words derived from Norse include: sky, egg, cake, skin, leg, window (wind eye), husband, fellow, skill, anger, flat, odd, ugly, get, give, take, raise, call, die, they, their, them. ("The Origin and History of the English Language", Kryss Katsiavriades)Several written works have survived from the Old English period. The most famous is a heroic epic poem called "Beowulf". It is the oldest known English poem and it is notable for its length - 3,183 lines. Experts say "Beowulf" was written in Britain more than one thousand years ago. The name of the person who wrote it is unknown.Middle English (1100-circa 1500 AD): After William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England in 1066 AD with his armies and became king, he brought his nobles, who spoke French, to be the new government. The Old French took over as the language of the court, administration, and culture. Latin was mostly used for written language, especially that of the Church. Meanwhile, The English language, as the language of the now lower class, was considered a vulgar tongue.By about 1200, England and France had split. English changed a lot, because it was mostly being spoken instead of written for about 300 years. The use of Old English came back, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. Most of the words embedded in the English vocabulary are words of power, such as crown, castle, court, parliament, army, mansion, gown, beauty, banquet, art, poet, romance, duke, servant, peasant, traitor and governor. ("Language Timeline", The British Library Board)Because the English underclass cooked for the Norman upper class, the words for most domestic animals are English (ox, cow, calf, sheep, swine, deer) while the words for the meats derived from them are French (beef, veal, mutton, pork, bacon, venison). ("The Origin and History of the English Language", Kryss Katsiavriades)The Middle English is also characterized for the beginning of the Great Vowel Shift. It was a massive sound change affecting the long vowels of English. Basically, the long vowels shifted upwards; that is, a vowel that used to be pronounced in one place in the mouth would be pronounced in a different place, higher up in the mouth. The Great Vowel Shift occurred during the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries.The most famous example of Middle English is Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales", a collection of stories about a group of thirty people who travel as pilgrims to Canterbury, England. The portraits that he paints in his Tales give us an idea of what life was like in fourteenth century England.Modern English (1500 to the present): Modern English developed after William Caxton established his printing press at Westminster Abbey in 1476. Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press in Germany around 1450, but Caxton set up England's first press. The Bible and some valuable manuscripts were printed. The invention of the printing press made books available to more people. The books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English.By the time of Shakespeare's writings (1592-1616), the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English. There were three big developments in the world at the beginning of Modern English period: the Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, and the British Colonialism.It was during the English Renaissance that most of the words from Greek and Latin entered English. This period in English cultural history (early 16th century to the early 17th century) is sometimes referred to as "the age of Shakespeare" or "the Elizabethan era", taking the name of the English Renaissance's most famous author and most important monarch, respectively. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I there was an explosion of culture in the form. of support of the arts, popularization of the printing press, and massive amounts of sea travel.England began the Industrial Revolution (18th century) and this had also an effect on the development of the language as new words had to be invented or existing ones modified to cope with the rapid changes in technology. New technical words were added to the vocabulary as inventors designed various products and machinery. These words were named after the inventor or given the name of their choice (trains, engine, pulleys, combustion, electricity, telephone, telegraph, camera etc).Britain was an Empire for 200 years between the 18th and 20th centuries and English language continued to change as the British Empire moved across the world - to the USA, Australia, New Zealand, India, Asia and Africa. They sent people to settle and live in their conquered places and as settlers interacted with natives, new words were added to the English vocabulary. For example, 'kangaroo' and 'boomerang' are native Australian Aborigine words, 'juggernaut' and 'turban' came from India. (See more borrowings from different languages.)English continues to change and develop, with hundreds of new words arriving every year. But even with all the borrowings from many other languages the heart of the English language remains the Anglo-Saxon of Old English. The grammar of English is also distinctly Germanic - three genders (he, she and it) and a simple set of verb tenses.

08-09年海淀区九年级英语期末测试答案zuoliling

海淀区九年级第一学期期末练习 英语参考答案及评分标准 2009.1 第Ⅰ卷(机读卷 共70分) 19.C 20.A 21.B 22.B 23.D 24.A 25.C 26.D 27.C 28.B 29.D 30.A 31.D 32.C 33.A 34.B 35.C 36.B 37.A 38.B 39.A 40.C 41.B 42.D 43.C 44.D 45.A 46.B 47.D 48.C 49.A 50.A 51.C 52.B 53.D 54.D 55.A 56.D 57.C 58.A 59.B 第Ⅱ卷(非机读卷 共50分) 一、听一段短文,记录关键信息。 l.teacher 2.English 3.10 weeks 4.knowing the rules 二、根据短文内容,用方框中所给的单词填空。 l.hope 2.place 3.activities 4.stay 5.with 6.money 7.enough 三、根据中文意思完成句子。 l.cheer him up 2.to come 3.spend;working 4.not only;but(also) 5.Although tea wasn’t brought 四、阅读短文,根据其内容回答问题。 1.Yes.\Yes,she did. 2.By machines. 3.Because they are afraid of losing their jobs to robots. 4.Jobs that people would rather not do. 5.The advantages and disadvantages of using robots in the factories. 五、书面表达 Last year I had a wonderful winter vacation.I traveled with my parents to visit my grand- parents.We played games together and spent a lot of time talking about my schoolwork.They were proud of me and our time together was very special. However,I am going to do something different this winter vacation.First of all,I will study harder than before because I want to make great progress in all subjects next term,especially in English.I am weak in English listening.I’11 listen to the English radio program every day to improve my listening skills.Besides,I’d like to volunteer some time to visit the sick kids in the local hospital to cheer them up.I’m good at singing and dancing so I can put this love to good use by playing with them. I’m sure I’11 have a busy but colorful winter vacation.

注意这些问题助你提高中考成绩哆啦123

中考是一个选拔性的考试,很多同学对自己的要求都比较高,希望在中考的考试中能发挥出自己的真实水平。同时,在中考过程中也会遇...

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